I VÍIINVIA NOLLIOeA LSNI

RAWS-F Remote

Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

Revision: 12/13

Copyright © 2006-2013 Campbell Scientific, Inc.

Warranty

"PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED BY CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC. are warranted by Campbell Scientific, Inc. (“Campbell”) to be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal use and service for twelve (12) months from date of shipment unless otherwise specified in the corresponding Campbell pricelist or product manual. Products not manufactured, but that are re-sold by Campbell, are warranted only to the limits extended by the original manufacturer. Batteries, fine-wire thermocouples, desiccant, and other consumables have no warranty. Campbell's obligation under this warranty 1s limited to repairing or replacing (at Campbell's option) defective products, which shall be the sole and exclusive remedy under this warranty. The customer shall assume all costs of removing, reinstalling, and shipping defective products to Campbell. Campbell will return such products by surface carrier prepaid within the continental United States of America. To all other locations, Campbell will return such products best way CIP (Port of Entry) INCOTERM? 2010, prepaid. This warranty shall not apply to any products which have been subjected to modification, misuse, neglect, improper service, accidents of nature, or shipping damage. This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, expressed or implied. The warranty for installation services performed by Campbell such as programming to customer specifications, electrical connections to products manufactured by Campbell, and product specific training, is part of Campbell’s product warranty. CAMPBELL EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS AND EXCLUDES ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Campbell is not liable for any special, indirect, incidental, and/or consequential damages."

Assistance

Products may not be returned without prior authorization. The following contact information is for US and international customers residing in countries served by Campbell Scientific, Inc. directly. Affiliate companies handle repairs for customers within their territories. Please visit www.campbellsci.com to determine which Campbell Scientific company serves your country.

To obtain a Returned Materials Authorization (RMA), contact CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC., phone (435) 227-9000. After an application engineer determines the nature of the problem, an RMA number will be issued. Please write this number clearly on the outside of the shipping container. Campbell Scientific's shipping address is:

CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC. RMA#

815 West 1800 North

Logan, Utah 84321-1784

For all returns, the customer must fill out a “Statement of Product Cleanliness and Decontamination” form and comply with the requirements specified in it. The form is available from our web site at www.campbellsci.com/repair. A completed form must be either emailed to repair@campbellsci.com or faxed to (435) 227-9106. Campbell Scientific is unable to process any returns until we receive this form. If the form is not received within three days of product receipt or is incomplete, the product will be returned to the customer at the customer’s expense. Campbell Scientific reserves the right to refuse service on products that were exposed to contaminants that may cause health or safety concerns for our employees.

Table of Contents

PDF viewers: These page numbers refer to the printed version of this document. Use the PDF reader bookmarks tab for links to specific sections.

Te: IntrOOdUCcliOD ici 1

2: "GEHINO Started eet 3

3. Station Siting and Orientation ................................... 6 3.] CAGADA Lanta mate san nauta ue teni ut Lr ELE 6 3.2 Air Temperature and Relative Humidity ............................eeeeeeeeuuuuue. 6 3o- O ea ares 7 2A SOLA RAG ÍA MOD A A A A MR eR: 7 355. -Windspeed and Di a a e do 7 3.6 Barometric Pressure (OptiONAl)...........ooononnnnononononononononono nono nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnoos 7 3.7 Fuel Moisture and Fuel Temperature (optional) .................................. 7

4. Sensor Maintenance, Calibration, and

TrOUDIeSnoOOllng 1: 2] id 7 A ic A J 4.2 . Air Temperature and Relative Humidity ...................... esses 8

42.' ‘General Descrip leales: 8 ADD NV WAIN "HER 9 423. E C2 niea a esas hale Msdutesu tue Pad 9 424 CANDINO A ee 9 42:5.. A ranked ipt c uen 9

AD Ran CA cec 9 Jak A sI ME E 9

23. MER igi cR 10

E WManmteldticesu e 10

A O c X-—É cc 10 AOD: Toubon asic eheu deus E aE iepdise deben: 11

2 (8) o A 11 ZI. General Descrip eoe teo rotes Old bond obses 11 A A ata peas EE 12 Z4. Name oco esiti oe esteso beetle o eU stg 12 dd ICAO ee en ee ies dede site beis dais 12 AAD: TOUS OO reirte 12

45 Wind Speed and Direction .............. seems 13 Z5» Mund SEAS tt esed. 13

Z5 41 General Descrip. adi 13 A 14

2.54.53. IMAN ANCE audes opens tet E IN 14

BSAA MERCIER TET 14

Z5.5- A E E EE 14

Table of Contents

4.6

4.7

4.5.2 2-D WindSonic (optional) ....ooooonncnnccununononananononononnnnnnnonononnnnnnnnnos 4.5.2.1 | General Description...

a S MM A NR T T

AD 25+ Mantenan e aaeain EE ee epo IR ru anb nsi E ERUA e MEME DC TT 52.5 ISA A Barometric Pressure (optional)..................... sese 40.1. General Description stc A A A cide TEE ANOS: Manene aen a a E Aok: A anD ON rera e TEA 26.5" Trouble shotini srecetina banc a Fuel Moisture and Fuel Temperature (optional)................................ TI “Gemeral DescHptloliusos e eemper aeree seta tenctecseacesnadseneinest A UA MES O C A Ga odisti dedere e dl ccuddc umi tst uenbed i conb oS Ads «Call bEdIODO qe nddidueietu coated a Ao A der dob di dcdit

5. Equipment Maintenance, Calibration, and

Troubleshooting ...................................................-. 19 5.] Solar P AMES: osssadett a t patate tas c bao: SLT. “General DeSctIpHOTE sio 3.1:2- NW AWA ING Goes cicada a scita inet a pi coser taa ecupEe SILO «Marntefiatie e uoo enda col dan Sol. MCA DEA OMe sa 3x5: a SBOOLDHIB: oso conseto aE i 3:25. Charger Recoleta SL. ¿General DOSCEUIDEOTL iia IA CANIITITID four steteieocodiO testet a a aS 5:2:3- A A 3:2 wp- NC ATE UO Use hehe as ake heroe ins etes dena teo defen onerat ca tete t eed e A SBEOUDICSBOOLI esas ote eret pei beer cedes tede eorene its pedea bier eed restes So Dane E EE Jl. General DOsScEDEHOT codeine iUt tede det So WINE REO TT Nm P 39 oMarmte alie Goodies ds Jo ¡Cambra 307. "EroubleshoOOttlg: ii lia 5.4 GOES Transmitter (Optional) ...........ccccccccccnnnnnnnnnnonnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnninnnnnos SAEI. “General DOSCEHDLDUOT d a ERR 35,425 WOE o So = Watt Gn ance uode eite donate ease b euo given dus uu SAA. "Calibraltoli zs tib Partt bas tati ees 54.5: Troubleshootne: nire A eet 5.5 CRI000 Keyboard/Display ...........oocccccccccncnnnnncnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnoninonoss 5931 - General DeSCPIDEIOTL s ido ind tical See RR ees NOR ERR SERE SP MER e E E E EA A E OEA A 5S9: IAEA 5:94. CC'O BEATOS ione b thee a a dod cua ium id da cue PST LIS o MING suce Dette esent unte nibo itae bn eee 5:0. XC ERTO00D3t3l09g POL euet teri rape eti ra n ind dU e RUE S.L General DeSCEIDLHODL so eter acces 3:92. O eect

Table of Contents

o Ce ae eee eee Pee De PS D ee eee me 27 SOA o A a DER AI 27 3:65 roubles AA eere AER Dy

b. Desiccan tancias 27

Tz References RETE 28

8. RAWS Orientation...........................-.. eee eren nnne 28

8.1 8.2

Appendices

Determining True North and Sensor Orientation ............................... 28 USGS W SDC CUIO E a 30

A. Assemble the RAWS-F Station .............................. A-1

B. Transport Cases (Optional).................................... B-1

Figures

4-2. 4-3. 4-4. 4-5. 4-6. 4-T. 5-]. 5-2. 5-4. 5-5. 5-6. 8-1. 8-2.

8-3.

8-4,

Tables

22b 4-1. 4-2.

4-4.

Color-coded, keyed connector panel ......................... sss l RAWS-F Quick Deployment Weather Station. Some wiring

NOE WA 2 Inside environmental enclosure (optional equipment shown) .............. 4 Air temperature and relative humidity ................... sss 8 Rain gage and CS300-QD pyranometet ...cccoccccccccnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnninininoss 10 Py PANO meter oisi a 11 W ind Sens Oie S a outed taecenceteae 13 DVD WAG SONIC enen a E aT 15 Batometric presi leas 16 CS516-QD Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature ......................... sess 18 I2-volt charger A PEE PREIS RISE NERA Ie ES 20 GOES transmitidas 24 CR1000 Keyboard/Display ......................... eene 23 CR1000 and printed circuit wiring panel ......................... eese 26 Printed circuit board wiring panel connector ID ................................ 2 Magnetic declination for the contiguous United States ...................... 29 A declination angle east of True North (positive) 1s subtracted

from 360 (0) degrees to find True North ............cccccccccccnncnnnnnnnnnnnno: 30 A declination angle west of True North (negative) is subtracted

from 0 (360) degrees to find True North ............occcccccccncncnnncnnnnnnnns: 30 USGS web calculator 31 Public Vatrables sd di 5 TEMP/RH Connector (color coded OraOge).ooooonnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnos 9 PRECIP Connector (color coded blue) .................occccccccccccnnnononcnnnonos: 10 SOLAR RAD SDI-12 Connector (color coded green)....................... 12 WS/WD Connector (color coded red).........oooccccccccccncnnnonnnnnononononinonos: 14

Table of Contents

4-5. 4-6. 4-T. 5-].

SDI-12 Connector (color coded vellow)............................................ 15 ESTIU WINS enano a E aida 16 FM/FT Connector (color coded brown) ............................ esse 18 GOES Transmitter Connections ...ooooooonoooooonoooooonnnnononnnnonnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnos 24

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

1.

Introduction

NOTE

The RAWS-F Fire Weather Quick Deployment Station is a lightweight, pre- configured station that can be set up in less than 10 minutes—without tools (see Section 2, Getting Started). The aluminum environmental enclosure houses a 12 V rechargeable battery and a CR1000 datalogger mounted to a 6 ft tripod. The outside of the enclosure has color-coded, keyed connectors (FIGURE 1-1) for attaching the sensors. Besides the connectors, a wiring panel is included allowing the measurement of additional sensors. The RAWS-F typically communicates via our GOES satellite transmitter. It is also compatible with other communication equipment such as telephones, digital cellular transceivers, and radios. This station is ideal for prescribed burns or other temporary installations. The RAWS-F Quick Deployment Weather Station is shown in FIGURE 1-2.

Specifications are available from our web site at www.campbellsci.com. For “sensors specifications," click on “Products”, select “Sensors” and go to the sensor manual for specifications. For “equipment specifications", enter the

part number in the “Search” box on the website mentioned above and go to the equipment manual for specifications.

Equipment and sensor specifications are provided on the ResourceDVD which ships with the RAWS-F.

RF OUTPUT

BAIT CHARGER/ SOLAR PANEL su

FIGURE 1-1. Color-coded, keyed connector panel

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

RF antenna

USC

d c6 TBS25 (adjust level) CS300-QD is behind the Crossarm TE525

(face north to south) Upper mast

BRL

HC2S3-QD

L— housed in 41003-5

Yagi antenna for radiation shield

" di TX320 satellite

Lower mast

ST ge E | [*- GPS antenna | (used with TX320)

T

SP10/20-QD

(facing equator) A

Level adjustment lever

Stake anchor holes A

FIGURE 1-2. RAWS-F Quick Deployment Weather Station. Some wiring not shown.

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

2. Getting Started

NOTE

NOTE

Set up and test your station before field deployment (Appendix A).

Level the RAWS to ensure the sensors are level. Level the rain gage by adjusting the rain gage leveling screw. A post level and compass ship with the station (pn 16670).

Keep this manual and the CR1000KD Keyboard Display with

the RAWS.

Review the station siting and orientation section before field deployment. Ifa problem is encountered, review the equipment wiring and troubleshooting sections in this manual.

After siting and leveling the RAWS, open the enclosure and (1) connect the battery cable and (2) verify the CH100 switch is in the *on' position.

When this equipment is not in use (for example, transport or storage), disconnect battery cable to the CH100.

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

(1) Connect battery

SC12 Cable

(2) Turn on CH100

CR1000 power in

NOTE

9

® TX320

HOR GOES Transm itte

e

' rransuurrino

DIAGNOSTICS

RS-232 USB

SYNCHRONIZING CLOCK TO GPS

CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC

Ø ELT

J MEE O |

CR1000 Wiring Panel

CR1000KD packed in foam (may go here)

Battery

TX320 GOES Transmitter

VSP3 Vosponder

RF Radio

CS100 Barometer

CR1000 Datalogger

FIGURE 2-1. Inside environmental enclosure (optional equipment

shown)

The RAWS-F comes pre-programmed, but this program does

NOT include user-specific GOES-ID parameters. Please contact a Campbell Scientific Applications Engineer for programming assistance. Campbell Scientific company contact information is listed on the last page of this manual.

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

NOTE Use the CRI000KD Keyboard Display to see the “Public Variables” shown in TABLE 2-1.

e Connect the CR1000KD Keyboard Display to the CS I/O connector (FIGURE 5-5) or SC12 Cable (FIGURE 2-1)

e Press any key for the CR1000KD Power up Screen

e Press Enter to move down a menu (Press Esc

to move up a menu)

(Press up/down arrow to select item)

Select Data, press Enter Press any key for Power up Screen

i Press ^ to turn on/off backlight

Select Real Time Tables, press Enter Press <> to adjust contrast

Select Public, press Enter

Press up/down arrow to see the Public Variables listed in TABLE 2-1

TABLE 2-1. Public Variables

Batt Volt System power supply voltage

E sm

2 3 4 5 7

TO RainTot TES525 cumulative rain fall in inches B] WS mph Wind speed in MPH

WSDiag Mans MaxWD GOES Variables |

True or False: True indicates GPS fix good and program is collecting data. False until GPS fix is obtained

BP inHg Hourly barometric pressure, inHg

l

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 I7 18

CountDwn

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

19 Clockgood True or False: True after GPS fix and CR1000 clock has been set to match TX320 clock

20 TimeToXmit Seconds until transmit time. Indicates CR1000 and TX320 are properly setup and running

SWR Standing Wave Ratio (SWR), only after a transmission. Indicates condition of

antenna and cable. SWR should be less than 2.0

3. Station Siting and Orientation

3.1 General Description

Selecting an appropriate site for the RAWS is critical in order to obtain accurate meteorological data. In general, the site should be representative of the general area of interest and away from the influence of obstructions such as buildings and trees.

NOTE See Section 7, References, for siting references. WARNING If any part of the weather station comes in contact with

power lines, you could be killed. Contact local utilities for the location of buried utility lines before digging or driving ground rods.

3.2 Air Temperature and Relative Humidity

A temperature and relative humidity (RH) sensor should be located over an open level area at least 9 m in diameter (EPA). The surface should be covered by short grass, or where grass does not grow, the natural earth surface. The sensor must be housed inside a radiation shield and adequately ventilated.

Situations to avoid include:

large industrial heat sources

rooftops

steep slopes

sheltered hollow

high vegetation

shaded areas

swamps

areas where snow drifts occur

low places holding standing water after rains

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

3.3 Precipitation

3.4

3.9

3.6

3.7

NOTE

A rain gage should be located over an open level area covered by short grass, or where grass does not grow, the natural earth surface. Level the RAWS station to ensure the sensors are level. Level the rain gage by adjusting the rain gage leveling screw. A post level and compass ship with the RAWS (pn 16770).

Take off the funnel and remove the rubber band securing the

tipping bucket mechanism during transport.

Solar Radiation

A solar radiation sensor should be located to avoid shadows on the sensor at any time. Orient the RAWS facing the equator, minimizing the chance of shading from other weather station structures. Reflective surfaces and sources of artificial radiation should be avoided. Level the RAWS to ensure the solar radiation sensor is level.

Wind Speed and Direction

A wind sensor should be located over open level terrain and at a distance of at least ten times (EPA) the height of any nearby building, tree, or other obstruction.

Barometric Pressure (optional)

The barometric pressure sensor is mounted to the back plate inside the RAWS environmental enclosure.

Fuel Moisture and Fuel Temperature (optional)

The fuel moisture and fuel temperature sensor should be left outside at the field site continually exposed to the same conditions as the forest fuels. The fuel moisture and fuel temperature dowel rods absorb and desorb moisture from its surroundings. Install the probes horizontally on the mounting stake and face the sensors towards the equator above a representative forest floor duff layer. Place the sensor away from foot traffic areas.

Sensor Maintenance, Calibration, and Troubleshooting

4.1

Maintenance

Proper maintenance of weather station components is essential to obtain accurate data. Equipment must be in good operating condition, which requires a program of regular inspection and maintenance. Routine and simple maintenance can be accomplished by the person in charge of the weather station. More difficult maintenance, such as sensor calibration, sensor performance testing (for example, bearing torque), and sensor component replacement, generally requires sending the instrument to Campbell Scientific.

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

A station log should be maintained for each weather station that includes equipment model, serial numbers, and maintenance that was performed.

NOTE Contact Campbell Scientific, phone (435) 227-9000, for an RMA number before returning sensor or equipment for service.

4.2 Air Temperature and Relative Humidity

4.2.1 General Description

Rotronic's HydroClip2 Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor (pn HC283-QD) shown in FIGURE 4-1 contains a Platinum Resistance Thermometer (PRT) and a Rotronic's INI capacitive sensor. The probe has a voltage output for each sensor.

FIGURE 4-1. Air temperature and relative humidity

4.2.2 Wiring

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

The HC253 attaches to the connector labeled TEMP/RH, which is color coded orange. This sensor is internally wired from the RAWS connector panel to the CR1000.

[a senor Excaion [vx >

RH Signal Switched 12 V SW I2V

4.2.3 Maintenance

4.2.4 Calibration

The temp/RH sensor requires minimal maintenance. Check monthly to make sure the radiation shield is free from debris. The filter at the end of the sensor should also be checked for contaminates. When installed in close proximity to the ocean or other bodies of salt water, a coating of salt may build up on the radiation shield, sensor, filter and even the RH chip. A buildup of salt on the filter or RH chip will delay or destroy the response to atmospheric humidity. The filter can be rinsed gently in distilled water. If necessary, the chip can be removed and rinsed as well. Do not scratch the RH chip while cleaning.

Recalibrate the temp/RH sensor annually. Obtain an RMA number before returning this sensor to Campbell Scientific for recalibration.

4.2.5 Troubleshooting

If a problem is suspected, check the sensor cable. Disconnect the connector and look for damaged pins. Verify that the sensor body is connected to the sensor head. Under the filter assembly, verify the sensors are connected but not touching. Try connecting a substitute sensor. Obtain an RMA number before returning this sensor to Campbell Scientific for repair.

4.3 Rain Gage

4.3.1 General Description

The Texas Electronics Rain Gage (pn TE525-QD) shown in FIGURE 4-2 is an adaptation of a Weather Bureau tipping bucket rain gage. The rain gage has a 6 inch collector. The rain gage sensor output has a switch closure for each bucket tip. Level the rain gage by adjusting the rain gage leveling screw. A post level and compass (pn 16670) ship with the station.

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

qs

FIGURE 4-2. Rain gage and CS300-QD pyranometer

4.3.2 Wiring

The TE525-LQ attaches to the connector labeled PRECIP, which is color coded blue. This sensor is internally wired from the RAWS connector panel to the CR1000.

TABLE 4-2. PRECIP Connector (color coded blue)

E

4.3.3 Maintenance

The rain gage funnel and bucket mechanism must be kept clean. Routinely check for and remove any foreign material, dust, insects, etc.

4.3.4 Calibration

Recalibrate the rain gage annually. Obtain an RMA number before returning this sensor to Campbell Scientific for recalibration.

10

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

4.3.5 Troubleshooting

If a problem is suspected, check the sensor cable. Disconnect the connector and use a digital volt meter (DVM) to check the resistance between Pin A (sensor signal) and Pin C (sensor ground). The resistance should read as an open circuit until you move the rain gage tipping mechanism where the magnet swings past the reed relay. Try connecting a substitute sensor. Obtain an RMA number before returning this sensor to Campbell Scientific for repair.

4.4 Solar Radiation

4.4.1 General Description

The Apogee Pyranometer (pn CS300-QD) shown in FIGURE 4-3 measures incoming solar radiation with a silicon photovoltaic detector mounted in a cosine-corrected head. The detector outputs current; a shunt resistor in the sensor converts the signal from current to voltage. During the night, the CS300-QD may read slightly negative incoming solar radiation. The negative signal is caused by RF noise.

FIGURE 4-3. Pyranometer

11

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

4.4.2 Wiring

The CS300-LQ attaches to the connector labeled SOLAR RAD SDI-12; this connector is color coded green. The pyranometer is internally wired from the RAWS connector panel to the CR1000.

TABLE 4-3. SOLAR RAD SDI-12 Connector (color coded green)

SDI-12 Signal C5 (used for a second SDI-12 sensor)

SDI-12 12 V 12V (used for a second SDI-12 sensor)

SDI-12 Ground G (used for a second SDI-12 sensor)

4.4.3 Maintenance

The pyranometer must be kept clean. Routinely check for and remove any foreign material, dust or debris on the sensor head. The debris can be removed with a blast of compressed air or with a soft bristle, camel hair brush. Handle the sensor carefully when cleaning. Be careful not to scratch the surface of the sensor.

4.4.4 Calibration

Recalibrate the pyranometer annually. Obtain an RMA number before returning this sensor to Campbell Scientific for recalibration.

4.4.5 Troubleshooting

If a problem is suspected, check the sensor cable. Disconnect the connector and use a DVM to check the voltage between Pin A Solar Sensor (+) and Pin B Solar Sensor (-). The voltage should be 0 to 200 mV for 0 to 1000 W m? radiation. No voltage indicates a problem with either the photodiode or the shunt resistor, both of which are potted in the sensor head and cannot be serviced. Try connecting a substitute sensor. Obtain an RMA number before returning this sensor to Campbell Scientific for repair.

12

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

4.5 Wind Speed and Direction

4.5.1 Wind Sensor

4.5.1.1 General Description

The Met One Wind Sensor (pn 034B-QD) shown in FIGURE 4-4 is an integrated cup anemometer and wind vane. The anemometer consists of three cups that sense the wind speed. These cups rotate on a vertical shaft that magnetically activates a sealed reed switch. The reed switch opens and closes at a rate proportional to wind speed. The wind direction is sensed by a vane. The vane drives a 10 KQ potentiometer. The wind speed sensor outputs a pulse. The wind direction sensor outputs a voltage.

Set screw holes must be covered with labels

FIGURE 4-4. Wind sensor

13

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

14

4.5.1.2 Wiring

4.5.1.3 Maintenance

4.5.1.4 Calibration

The 034B-LQ attaches to the connector labeled WS/WD; this connector is color coded red. The sensor is internally wired from the RAWS connector panel to the CR1000.

TABLE 4-4. WS/WD Connector (color coded red)

Description CR1000 Terminal —L

A Sensor Ground ES

Wind Direction Excitation Wind Direction Signal Power Ground +12 V Power

Wind Speed Signal

The wind vane tail must be attached to the hub. Maintain the tail assembly with the tail vertical. Extra labels are included with the wind sensor to recover the holes if the sensor has to be disassembled for maintenance. The set screw holes must be covered with these labels to prevent corrosion and ensure the warranty. Verify free movement of the cup anemometer and wind vane.

Recalibrate the wind sensor annually. Obtain an RMA number before returning this sensor to Campbell Scientific for recalibration.

4.5.1.5 Troubleshooting

If a problem is suspected, check the sensor cable. Disconnect the connector and look for damaged pins. Verify free movement of the cup anemometer and wind vane. Try connecting a substitute sensor. Obtain an RMA number before returning this sensor to Campbell Scientific for repair.

4.5.2 2-D WindSonic (optional)

4.5.2.1 General Description

The Gill Instruments 2-D Sonic Wind Sensor (pn WindSonic4-QD) shown in FIGURE 4-5 is an ultrasonic anemometer for measuring wind direction and wind speed. It uses two pairs of orthogonally oriented transducers to sense the horizontal wind. The transducers bounce the ultrasonic signal from a hood, minimizing the effects of transducer shadowing and flow distortion. The 2-D Sonic Wind Sensor makes wind measurements at a frequency of 1 Hz and outputs a SDI-12 signal to the datalogger.

4.5.2.2 Wiring

4.5.2.3 Maintenance

4.5.2.4 Calibration

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

Blue north marker arrow

FIGURE 4-5. 2-D WindSonic

The WindSonic4-LQ attaches to the connector labeled SDI-12; this connector is color coded red. The sensor is internally wired from the RAWS connector panel to the CR1000.

TABLE 4-5. SDI-12 Connector (color coded yellow)

y à [uw [ww

There are no user-serviceable parts on the 2-D Sonic Wind Sensor. Keep the transducer paths clear of any obstructions. When clearing the transducer paths, do not remove the “rubber” caps on each of the transducers.

Recalibrate the 2-D Sonic Wind Sensor annually. Obtain an RMA number before returning this sensor to Campbell Scientific for recalibration.

15

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

4.5.2.5 Troubleshooting

If a problem is suspected, check the sensor cable. Disconnect the connector and look for damaged pins. Try connecting a substitute sensor. Should the 2-D sonic sensor be damaged, fails to output data, or sends a nonzero diagnostic, obtain an RMA number before returning this sensor to Campbell Scientific for repair.

4.6 Barometric Pressure (optional)

4.6.1 General Description

The Setra Barometric Pressure Sensor (pn CS100) shown in FIGURE 4-6 is a capacitive pressure transducer that uses Setra's electrical capacitor technology for barometric pressure measurements over the 600 to 1100 millibar range. The CS100 is supplied in the triggered mode, in which the datalogger switches 12 Vdc power to the barometer before the measurement. The datalogger then powers down the barometer after the measurement to conserve power.

FIGURE 4-6. Barometric pressure

4.6.2 Wiring

The CS100 is mounted inside the RAWS environmental enclosure and the sensor wires are attached to the CR 1000 printed circuit board wiring panel.

TABLE 4-6. CS100-QD Wiring

CS100 Wire Color | CR1000 Terminal

16

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

4.6.3 Maintenance

CAUTION

4.6.4 Calibration

Since the CS100 is semi-sealed, minimum maintenance is required. Change the RAWS enclosure desiccant regularly; failure to protect the CS100 sensor from condensation may result in permanent damage.

The CS100 is sensitive to static when the back plate is

removed. To avoid damage, take adequate anti-static measures when handling this sensor.

Recalibrate the CS100 Barometric Pressure Sensor annually. Obtain an RMA number before returning this sensor to Campbell Scientific for recalibration.

4.6.5 Troubleshooting

NOTE

If a problem is suspected, verify the sensor wires are securely fastened to the CS100 connector and the CR1000 printed circuit board wiring panel. Use a DVM to check the sensor output voltage on the CR1000 printed circuit board wiring panel (0 to 2.5 Vdc) between terminals SH and =.

For the DVM test, “temporarily” move the green wire from “C4” to “SV” terminal. No voltage indicates a problem with the sensor or a bad sensor cable connection. Try connecting a substitute sensor.

Obtain an RMA number before returning this sensor to Campbell Scientific for repair.

4.7 Fuel Moisture and Fuel Temperature (optional)

4.7.1 General Description

The CS516-LQ Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor consists of the CS506 Fuel Moisture Probe, 26601 Fuel Moisture Stick, CS205 Fuel Temperature Stick, and 107 thermistor mounted on the 26817 Mounting Stake (see FIGURE 4-7). The fuel moisture probe provides the moisture content of a standard 10- hour fuel moisture dowel. This moisture represents the moisture content of small-diameter (10-hour time lag) forest fuels. The fuel temperature probe consists of a Ponderosa pine dowel with a bored hole and a 107 Temperature Probe inserted into the dowel. The CS205 mounts on the mounting stake with the CS506.

17

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

FIGURE 4-7. CS516-QD Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature

4.7.2 Wiring

The CS516-LQ attaches to the connector labeled FM/FT, which is color coded brown. This sensor is internally wired from the RAWS connector panel to the CR1000.

TABLE 4-7. FM/FT Connector (color coded brown)

Description CR1000 Terminal A CS205 Temperature Signal

Sensor Ground

CS205 Temperature Excitation

CS506 FM Enable

CS506 FM 12 V

[C |CS205 Temperature Excitation | E | e806 FM Signal Fo [osmy ——

4.7.3 Maintenance

The CS506 Fuel Moisture element and 26601 dowel should be changed at least once a year with a new element in the spring. Since the characteristics of wood change so rapidly, more frequent dowel replacements may be desirable. To change the sensor element, loosen the Phillips head screws and replace with a new element. Tighten the screws after replacing the element.

The CS205 Fuel Moisture Stick should be changed annually or more frequently as required. The wood should visually appear fresh and new, not gray or discolored. The CS205 inserts into the compression fitting so that compression is applied to the split end of the stick gripping the 107 temperature probe.

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RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

4.7.4 Calibration

For most applications, it is unnecessary to calibrate the CS516-QD Fuel Moisture and Fuel Temperature Sensor. However, for those users that are interested in calibrating this sensor, please contact a Campbell Scientific Applications Engineer.

4.7.5 Troubleshooting

If a problem is suspected, check the sensor cable. Disconnect the connector and look for damaged pins. Verify the CS506 sensor element is securely fastened. Try connecting a substitute sensor. Obtain an RMA number before returning the CS516-QD sensor to Campbell Scientific for repair.

Equipment Maintenance, Calibration, and Troubleshooting

5.1 Solar Panels

5.1.1 General Description

The solar panel is a photovoltaic power source used for charging lead acid batteries. The SP20-QD 20 watt solar panel is used for system configurations that have higher-than-average power requirements. It is also recommended for use at higher elevations and latitudes. The solar panel should be mounted facing the equator.

The SP10-QD 10 watt solar panel is recommended for a RAWS where NO communication equipment is used. The SP20-QD 20 watt solar panel is recommended for a RAWS where communication equipment is used (for example, GOES, voice, cell phone, or radio).

NOTE The solar panel selected for the RAWS depends on the station power requirements, specifically the communication equipment selected for the station.

The SP10-QD solar panel outputs 0.59 Amps, 8.9 Watts typical peak power.

The SP20-QD solar panel outputs 1.17 Amps, 18 Watts typical peak power.

5.1.2 Wiring

The solar panel attaches to the connector panel labeled “BATT CHARGER/SOLAR PANEL". Inside the RAWS environmental enclosure, the “BATT CHARGER/SOLAR PANEL” connector pin A and pin B are wired to the CH100’s “CHG” and “CHG” ports. Polarity does not matter; either lead can be connected to either terminal. The CH100 has two functions: blocking any current flow from the battery to the solar panel, and limiting the source current to the battery.

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RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

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5.1.4 Calibration

5.1.3 Maintenance

An occasional cleaning of the glass improves the solar panel's efficiency.

No calibration is required.

5.1.5 Troubleshooting

If a problem is suspected, the solar panel may be checked by measuring the voltage output from the solar panel. Check the voltage with a voltmeter connected between the two leads going to the CH100's “CHG” “CHG” terminals located inside the environmental enclosure (15 to 28 Vdc). There must be solar radiation incident on the panel and there must be a load connected to the solar panel. The load can be the datalogger, other equipment, or a 75 ohm resistor capable of dissipating solar panel power between the two leads. No voltage output implies a bad solar panel, regulator, or cable. The magnitude of the voltage output depends on the incident solar radiation. Check the sensor cable. Disconnect the connector and look for damaged pins. Try connecting a substitute panel. Obtain an RMA number before returning the SP10/20-QD to Campbell Scientific for repair.

5.2 Charger/Regulator

5.2.1 General Description

The 12 Volt charger/regulator (pn CH100) is a charging regulator for 12 V rechargeable batteries. The CH100 is connected to an external charging source such as an unregulated solar panel (pn SP20-QD or SP10-QD) or a wall charger (pn 29796). The CH100 has two functions: blocking any current flow from the battery to the solar panel, and limiting the source current to the battery.

FIGURE 5-1. 12-volt charger/regulator

5.2.2 Wiring

NOTE

WARNING

CAUTION

CAUTION

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

The leads from the RAWS connector panel “BATT CHARGER/SOLAR PANEL" connector COLOR CODED PURPLE are wired to the CH100 “CHG” terminals. Polarity does not matter; either lead can be connected to either terminal. The charge indicating diode should be “ON” when voltage to the charging circuitry (CHG Terminals) is present.

An internal and/or external battery can be connected to the CH100 by means of the INT (Internal) or EXT (External) connectors. The battery red lead connects to the positive battery terminal and the black lead connects to the negative terminal.

An "external battery cable" (pn 6186) ships with the RAWS-F.

Connect 12 V power to the datalogger and/or peripherals using the “+12 and Ground" terminals. The ON-OFF switch applies power to these 12 V terminals.

Reversal of battery polarity will damage the CH100 or

battery.

A battery must be attached for the CH100 to function

correctly as a power supply.

It is possible to leave two batteries connected. The battery

connections are diode isolated; however, if one of the batteries fails, it could draw all the charging current and the other battery will be discharged.

5.2.3 Maintenance

5.2.4 Calibration

There are no user-serviceable parts on the CH100. No maintenance is required.

No calibration is required.

5.2.5 Troubleshooting

If a problem is suspected, the CH100 may be checked by measuring:

e input voltage between the two CHG terminals. From a solar panel, the voltage should be 15 to 28 Vdc. From the standard wall charger (pn 29796), the voltage should be 24 Vdc.

e charging output voltage (BATT INT or EXT terminal) with battery disconnected about 13.5 to 14 Vdc

e power out (+12 terminals) about 11 to 14 Vdc

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RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

NOTE

5.3 Battery

No voltage output implies a bad solar panel, regulator, or battery. If problems persist, obtain an RMA number and return the device to Campbell Scientific for repair.

Power out (+12 terminals) is controlled by the CH100 ON-OFF

switch position.

5.3.1 General Description

WARNING

5.3.2 Wiring

WARNING

CAUTION

Two power supply options are offered for the RAWS-F. The —24 option includes a 24 A h sealed rechargeable battery, an external 20 W solar panel, and a CH100 regulator. The —7 option includes a 7 Ahr sealed rechargeable battery, an external 10 W solar panel, and a CH100 regulator.

RAWS rechargeable batteries are designed to be float

charged. Permanent damage occurs and battery life is shortened if the battery is allowed to discharge below 10.5 volts.

The RAWS rechargeable battery should be connected to the CH100’s INT (Internal) connector. The battery red lead connects to the positive battery terminal and the black lead connects to the negative terminal. If desired, an external battery can be connected to the CH100’s EXT (External) connector. An “external battery cable” (pn 6186) ships with the RAWS-F.

Reversal of battery polarity will damage the CH100 or

battery.

It is possible to leave two batteries connected. The battery

connections are diode isolated; however, if one of the batteries fails, it could draw all the charging current and the other battery will be discharged.

5.3.3 Maintenance

5.3.4 Calibration

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There are no user-serviceable parts on the battery. No maintenance is required.

No calibration is required.

RAWS-F Remote Automated Weather Station for Fire Weather

5.3.5 Troubleshooting

If a problem is suspected, measure the +12 V and Ground terminal on the CR1000 printed circuit board wiring panel. Acceptable readings are +11 to +14 Vdc. Use PC200W software to collect the 1-HR data table from the CR1000 datalogger and review the historical record of battery voltage.

5.4 GOES Transmitter (Optional)

5.4.1 General Description

NOTE

The High Data Rate GOES Transmitter (pn TX320) shown in FIGURE 5-2 supports one-way communication, via satellite, from a Campbell Scientific datalogger to a ground receiving station. Satellite telemetry offers a convenient communication alternative for field stations where phone systems or RF systems are impractical or rendered unreliable after a tragedy to the local infrastructure. Data transmission rates of 100, 300, and 1200 bps are supported. Because clock accuracy 1s critical for GOES satellite telemetry, the